يقول تعالى : فَمَا لَهُمْ عَنِ التَّذْكِرَةِ مُعْرِضِينَ...



يقول الله تعالى :
{ فَمَا لَهُمْ عَنِ التَّذْكِرَةِ مُعْرِضِينَ (*) كَأَنَّهُمْ حُمُرٌ مُسْتَنْفِرَةٌ (*) فَرَّتْ مِنْ قَسْوَرَةٍ} [المدثر: 49,51]

شبههم في إعراضهم ونفورهم عن القرآن بحُمُر رأت الأسد أو الرماة ففرت منه .. وهذا من بديع القياس والتمثيل، فإن القوم في جهلهم بما بعث الله به رسوله كالحمر وهي لا تعقل شيئًا فإذا سمعت صوت الأسد أو الرامي نفرت منه أشد النفور. وهذا غاية الذم لهؤلاء، فإنهم نفروا عن الهدى الذي فيه سعادتهم وحياتهم كنفور الحمر عما يهلكها ويعقرها.
وتحت المستنفرة معنى أبلغ من النافرة .. فإنها لشدة نفورها قد استنفر بعضها بعضا وحضه على النفور، فإن في الاستفعال من الطلب قدرًا زائدًا على الفعل المجرد، فكأنها تواصت بالنفور وتواطأت عليه .. ومن قرأها بفتح الفاء، فالمعنى أن القسورة استنفرها وحملها على النفور ببأسه وشدته.

  • المصدر: إعلام الموقعين (1:196)

يقول تعالى : {كَلَّا بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ}



أن الذنوب إذا تكاثرت، طُبِعَ على قلب صاحبها فكان من الغافلين ..
يقول تعالى {كَلَّا بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ} [المطففين: 14]


قال بعض السلف: هو الذنب بعد الذنب.
وقال الحسن: هو الذنب على الذنب حتى يعمى القلب.
وقال غيره: لما كثرت ذنوبهم ومعاصيهم أحاطت بقلوبهم.
وأصل هذا أن القلب يصدأ من المعصية .. فإذا زادت غلب الصدأ حتى يصير رانًا، ثم يغلب حتى يصير طبعًا وقفلاً وختمًا فيصير القلب في غشاوة وغلاف .. فإذا حصل له ذلك بعد الهدى والبصيرة، انتكس فصار أعلاه أسفله فحينئذ يتولاه عدوه ويسوقه حيث أراد.

  • المصدر: الجواب الكافى صـ 39.

قال الله تعالى: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا اسْتَجِيبُوا لِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ...



قال الله تعالى: {يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا اسْتَجِيبُوا لِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ إِذَا دَعَاكُمْ لِمَا يُحْيِيكُمْ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَحُولُ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَقَلْبِهِ وَأَنَّهُ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ}[الأنفال: 24]

فتضمنت هذه الآية أمورًا :
أحدها: أن الحياة النافعة إنما تحصل بالاستجابة لله ورسوله .. فمن لم تحصل له الاستجابة فلا حياة له، وإن كانت له حياة بهيمية مشتركة بينه وبين أرذل الحيوانات. فالحياة الطيبة هي حياة من استجاب لله والرسول ظاهرًا وباطنًا. فهؤلاء هم الأحياء وإن ماتوا، وغيرهم أموات وإن كانوا أحياء الأبدان.
ولهذا كان أكمل الناس حياةً أكملهم استجابة لدعوة الرسول
.. فإن كل ما دعا إليه ففيه الحياة، فمن فاته جزء منه فاته جزء من الحياة، وفيه من الحياة بحسب ما استجاب للرسول.
قال مجاهد: "لِمَا يُحْيِيكُمْ" يعني: للحق. وقال قتادة : "هو هذا القرآن فيه الحياة والثقة والنجاة والعصمة في الدنيا والآخرة". وقال السدي:"هو الإسلام، أحياهم به بعد موتهم بالكفر" . وقال ابن إسحق وعروة بن الزبير: واللفظ له "لِمَا يُحْيِيكُمْ" يعني: للحرب التي أعزكم الله بها بعد الذل، وقوَّاكم بعد الضعف، ومنعكم بها من عدوكم بعد القهر منهم لكم.
وكل هذه عبارات عن حقيقة واحدة: وهي القيام بما جاء به الرسول ظاهرًا وباطنًا .. قال الواحدي "والأكثرون على أن معنى قوله "لِمَا يُحْيِيكُمْ" هو الجهاد،وهو قول ابن إسحق واختيار أكثر أهل المعاني" . قال الفراء : "إذا دعاكم إلى إحياء أمركم بجهاد عدوكم يريد أن أمرهم إنما يقوى بالحرب والجهاد، فلو تركوا الجهاد ضعف أمرهم واجترأ عليهم عدوهم ".
قلت : الجهاد من أعظم ما يحييهم به في الدنيا وفي البرزخ وفي الآخرة :
أما في الدنيا فإن قوتهم وقهرهم لعدوهم بالجهاد، وأما في البرزخ فقد قال تعالى: {وَلَا تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَاتًا بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ} [آل عمران: 169].
وأما في الآخرة فإن حظ المجاهدين والشهداء من حياتهم ونعيمها أعظم من حظ غيرهم .
ولهذا قال ابن قتيبة: "لِمَا يُحْيِيكُمْ" يعني: الشهادة . وقال بعض المفسرين: "لِمَا يُحْيِيكُمْ" يعني الجنة، فإنها الحياة الدائمة الطيبة. حكاه أبو علي الجرجاني .
والآية تتناول هذا كله: فإن الإيمان والإسلام والقرآن والجهاد تحيي القلوب الحياة الطيبة.
وكمال الحياة في الجنة، والرسول داع إلى الإيمان وإلى الجنة .. فهو داع إلى الحياة في الدنيا والآخرة.
والإنسان مضطر إلى نوعين من الحياة:
1) حياة بدنه .. التي بها يدرك النافع والضار ويؤثر ما ينفعه على ما يضره، ومتى نقصت فيه هذه الحياة ناله من الألم والضعف بحسب ذلك. ولذلك كانت حياة المريض والمحزون وصاحب الهم والغم والخوف والفقر والذل دون حياة من هو معافى من ذلك.
2) وحياة قلبه وروحه .. التي بها يميز بين الحق والباطل والغي والرشاد والهوى والضلال، فيختار الحق على ضده. فتفيده هذه الحياة قوة التمييز بين النافع والضار في العلوم والإرادات والأعمال. وتفيده قوة الإيمان والإرادة والحب للحق، وقوة البغض والكراهة للباطل. فشعوره وتمييزه وحبه ونفرته بحسب نصيبه من هذه الحياة، كما أن البدن الحي يكون شعوره وإحساسه بالنافع والمؤلم أتم، ويكون ميله إلى النافع ونفرته عن المؤلم أعظم. فهذا بحسب حياة البدن، وذاك بحسب حياة القلب. فإذا بطلت حياته بطل تمييزه. وإن كان له نوع تمييز لم يكن فيه قوة يؤثر بها النافع على الضار .
كما أن الإنسان لا حياة له حتى ينفخ فيه الملك، الذي هو رسول الله، من روحه، فيصير حيًا بذلك النفخ، وكان قبل ذلك من جملة الأموات.
وكذلك لا حياة لروحه وقلبه حتى ينفخ فيه الرسول من الروح الذي ألقي إليه .. قال تعالى { يُنَزِّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ بِالرُّوحِ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ عَلَى مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ..} [النحل: 2]، وقال: {.. يُلْقِي الرُّوحَ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ عَلَى مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ..} [غافر: 15]، وقال: { وَكَذَلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ رُوحًا مِنْ أَمْرِنَا مَا كُنْتَ تَدْرِي مَا الْكِتَابُ وَلَا الْإِيمَانُ وَلَكِنْ جَعَلْنَاهُ نُورًا نَهْدِي بِهِ مَنْ نَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا ..} [الشورى: 52] .. فأخبر أن وحيه روح ونور، فالحياة والاستنارة موقوفة على نفخ الرسول الملكي، فمن أصابه نفخ الرسول الملكي ونفخ الرسول البشري حصلت له الحياتان.
ومن حصل له نفخ الملك دون نفخ الرسول حصلت له إحدى الحياتين وفاتته الأخرى،،

  • المصدر: كتاب الفوائد (1:88,92)

تفسير السعدي سور ... (64) سورة التغابن



تفسير سورة التغابن

[ وهي مكية ]
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ يُسَبِّحُ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ( 1 ) هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ فَمِنْكُمْ كَافِرٌ وَمِنْكُمْ مُؤْمِنٌ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ ( 2 ) خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ وَصَوَّرَكُمْ فَأَحْسَنَ صُوَرَكُمْ وَإِلَيْهِ الْمَصِيرُ ( 3 ) يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تُسِرُّونَ وَمَا تُعْلِنُونَ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ ( 4 ) .
هذه الآيات [ الكريمات ] ، مشتملات على جملة كثيرة واسعة، من أوصاف الباري العظيمة، فذكر كمال ألوهيته تعالى، وسعة غناه، وافتقار جميع الخلائق إليه، وتسبيح من في السماوات والأرض بحمد ربها، وأن الملك كله لله، فلا يخرج مخلوق عن ملكه، والحمد كله له، حمد على ما له من صفات الكمال، وحمد على ما أوجده من الأشياء، وحمد على ما شرعه من الأحكام، وأسداه من النعم.
وقدرته شاملة، لا يخرج عنها موجود، فلا يعجزه شيء يريده.
وذكر أنه خلق العباد، وجعل منهم المؤمن والكافر، فإيمانهم وكفرهم كله، بقضاء الله وقدره، وهو الذي شاء ذلك منهم، بأن جعل لهم قدرة وإرادة، بها يتمكنون من كل ما يريدون من الأمر والنهي، ( وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ ) .
فلما ذكر خلق الإنسان المكلف المأمور المنهي، ذكر خلق باقي المخلوقات، فقال: ( خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأرْضَ ) أي: أجرامهما، [ وجميع ] ما فيهما، فأحسن خلقهما، ( بِالْحَقِّ ) أي: بالحكمة، والغاية المقصودة له تعالى، ( وَصَوَّرَكُمْ فَأَحْسَنَ صُوَرَكُمْ ) كما قال تعالى: لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الإِنْسَانَ فِي أَحْسَنِ تَقْوِيمٍ فالإنسان أحسن المخلوقات صورة، وأبهاها منظرًا. ( وَإِلَيْهِ الْمَصِيرُ ) أي: المرجع يوم القيامة، فيجازيكم على إيمانكم وكفركم، ويسألكم عن النعم والنعيم، الذي أولاكموه هل قمتم بشكره، أم لم تقوموا بشكره؟ ثم ذكر عموم علمه، فقال: ( يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأرْضِ) أي: من السرائر والظواهر، والغيب والشهادة. ( وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تُسِرُّونَ وَمَا تُعْلِنُونَ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ ) أي: بما فيها من الأسرار الطيبة، والخبايا الخبيثة، والنيات الصالحة، والمقاصد الفاسدة، فإذا كان عليمًا بذات الصدور، تعين على العاقل البصير، أن يحرص ويجتهد في حفظ باطنه، من الأخلاق الرذيلة، واتصافه بالأخلاق الجميلة.
أَلَمْ يَأْتِكُمْ نَبَأُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ قَبْلُ فَذَاقُوا وَبَالَ أَمْرِهِمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ( 5 ) ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُ كَانَتْ تَأْتِيهِمْ رُسُلُهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَقَالُوا أَبَشَرٌ يَهْدُونَنَا فَكَفَرُوا وَتَوَلَّوْا وَاسْتَغْنَى اللَّهُ وَاللَّهُ غَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ ( 6 ) .
لما ذكر تعالى من أوصافه الكاملة العظيمة، ما به يعرف ويعبد، ويبذل الجهد في مرضاته، وتجتنب مساخطه، أخبر بما فعل بالأمم السابقين، والقرون الماضين، الذين لم تزل أنباؤهم يتحدث بها المتأخرون، ويخبر بها الصادقون، وأنهم حين جاءتهم الرسل بالحق، كذبوهم وعاندوهم، فأذاقهم الله وبال أمرهم في الدنيا، وأخزاهم فيها، ( وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ) في [ الدار ] الآخرة، ولهذا ذكر السبب في هذه العقوبة فقال: ( ذَلِكَ ) النكال والوبال، الذي أحللناه بهم ( بِأَنَّهُ كَانَتْ تَأْتِيهِمْ رُسُلُهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ) أي: بالآيات الواضحات، الدالة على الحق والباطل، فاشمأزوا، واستكبروا على رسلهم، ( فقالوا أَبَشَرٌ يَهْدُونَنَا ) أي: فليس لهم فضل علينا، ولأي: شيء خصهم الله دوننا، كما قال في الآية الأخرى: قَالَتْ لَهُمْ رُسُلُهُمْ إِنْ نَحْنُ إِلا بَشَرٌ مِثْلُكُمْ وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَمُنُّ عَلَى مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ فهم حجروا فضل الله ومنته على أنبيائه أن يكونوا رسلا للخلق، واستكبروا عن الانقياد لهم، فابتلوا بعبادة الأحجار والأشجار ونحوها ( فَكَفَرُوا ) بالله ( وَتَوَلَّوْا ) عن طاعة الله، ( وَاسْتَغْنَى اللَّهُ ) عنهم، فلا يبالي بهم، ولا يضره ضلالهم شيئًا، ( وَاللَّهُ غَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ ) أي: هو الغني، الذي له الغنى التام المطلق، من جميع الوجوه، الحميد في أقواله وأفعاله وأوصافه.
زَعَمَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنْ لَنْ يُبْعَثُوا قُلْ بَلَى وَرَبِّي لَتُبْعَثُنَّ ثُمَّ لَتُنَبَّؤُنَّ بِمَا عَمِلْتُمْ وَذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ ( 7 ) .
يخبر تعالى عن عناد الكافرين، وزعمهم الباطل، وتكذيبهم بالبعث بغير علم ولا هدى ولا كتاب منير، فأمر أشرف خلقه، أن يقسم بربه على بعثهم، وجزائهم بأعمالهم الخبيثة، وتكذيبهم بالحق، ( وَذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ ) فإنه وإن كان عسيرًا بل متعذرًا بالنسبة إلى الخلق، فإن قواهم كلهم لو اجتمعت على إحياء ميت [ واحد ] ، ما قدروا على ذلك.
وأما الله تعالى، فإنه إذا أراد أمرًا فإنما يقول له كن فيكون، قال تعالى: وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَصَعِقَ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَنْ فِي الأَرْضِ إِلا مَنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ ثُمَّ نُفِخَ فِيهِ أُخْرَى فَإِذَا هُمْ قِيَامٌ يَنْظُرُونَ .
فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالنُّورِ الَّذِي أَنْزَلْنَا وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ ( 8 ) .
لما ذكر تعالى إنكار من أنكر البعث، وأن ذلك [ منهم ] موجب كفرهم بالله وآياته، أمر بما يعصم من الهلكة والشقاء، وهو الإيمان بالله ورسوله وكتابه، وسماه الله نورًا، فإن النور ضد الظلمة، وما في الكتاب الذي أنزله الله من الأحكام والشرائع والأخبار، أنوار يهتدى بها في ظلمات الجهل المدلهمة، ويمشى بها في حندس الليل البهيم، وما سوى الاهتداء بكتاب الله، فهي علوم ضررها أكثر من نفعها، وشرها أكثر من خيرها، بل لا خير فيها ولا نفع، إلا ما وافق ما جاءت به الرسل، والإيمان بالله ورسوله وكتابه، يقتضي الجزم التام، واليقين الصادق بها، والعمل بمقتضى ذلك التصديق، من امتثال الأوامر، واجتناب المناهي ( وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ ) فيجازيكم بأعمالكم الصالحة والسيئة.
يَوْمَ يَجْمَعُكُمْ لِيَوْمِ الْجَمْعِ ذَلِكَ يَوْمُ التَّغَابُنِ وَمَنْ يُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ وَيَعْمَلْ صَالِحًا يُكَفِّرْ عَنْهُ سَيِّئَاتِهِ وَيُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ ( 9 ) .
يعني: اذكروا يوم الجمع الذي يجمع الله به الأولين والآخرين، ويقفهم موقفًا هائلا عظيمًا، وينبئهم بما عملوا، فحينئذ يظهر الفرق والتفاوت بين الخلائق، ويرفع أقوام إلى أعلى عليين، في الغرف العاليات، والمنازل المرتفعات، المشتملة على جميع اللذات والشهوات، ويخفض أقوام إلى أسفل سافلين، محل الهم والغم، والحزن، والعذاب الشديد، وذلك نتيجة ما قدموه لأنفسهم، وأسلفوه أيام حياتهم، ولهذا قال: ( ذَلِكَ يَوْمُ التَّغَابُنِ ) .
أي: يظهر فيه التغابن والتفاوت بين الخلائق، ويغبن المؤمنون الفاسقين، ويعرف المجرمون أنهم على غير شيء، وأنهم هم الخاسرون، فكأنه قيل: بأي شيء يحصل الفلاح والشقاء والنعيم والعذاب؟
فذكر تعالى أسباب ذلك بقوله: ( وَمَنْ يُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ ) [ أي: ] إيمانًا تامًا، شاملا لجميع ما أمر الله بالإيمان به، ( وَيَعْمَلْ صَالِحًا ) من الفرائض والنوافل، من أداء حقوق الله وحقوق عباده. ( يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الأنْهَارُ ) فيها ما تشتهيه الأنفس، وتلذ الأعين، وتختاره الأرواح، وتحن إليه القلوب، ويكون نهاية كل مرغوب، ( خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ ) .

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا أُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ ( 10 ) .
( وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا ) أي: كفروا [ بها ] من غير مستند شرعي ولا عقلي، بل جاءتهم الأدلة والبينات، فكذبوا بها، وعاندوا ما دلت عليه.
( أُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ ) لأنها جمعت كل بؤس وشدة، وشقاء وعذاب.
مَا أَصَابَ مِنْ مُصِيبَةٍ إِلا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَمَنْ يُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ يَهْدِ قَلْبَهُ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ ( 11 ) وَأَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَى رَسُولِنَا الْبَلاغُ الْمُبِينُ ( 12 ) اللَّهُ لا إِلَهَ إِلا هُوَ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ ( 13 ) .
يقول تعالى: ( مَا أَصَابَ مِنْ مُصِيبَةٍ إِلا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ) هذا عام لجميع المصائب، في النفس، والمال، والولد، والأحباب، ونحوهم، فجميع ما أصاب العباد، فبقضاء الله وقدره، قد سبق بذلك علم الله [ تعالى ] ، وجرى به قلمه، ونفذت به مشيئته، واقتضته حكمته، والشأن كل الشأن، هل يقوم العبد بالوظيفة التي عليه في هذا المقام، أم لا يقوم بها؟ فإن قام بها، فله الثواب الجزيل، والأجر الجميل، في الدنيا والآخرة، فإذا آمن أنها من عند الله، فرضي بذلك، وسلم لأمره، هدى الله قلبه، فاطمأن ولم ينزعج عند المصائب، كما يجري لمن لم يهد الله قلبه، بل يرزقه الثبات عند ورودها والقيام بموجب الصبر، فيحصل له بذلك ثواب عاجل، مع ما يدخر الله له يوم الجزاء من الثواب كما قال تعالى: إِنَّمَا يُوَفَّى الصَّابِرُونَ أَجْرَهُمْ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ وعلم من هذا أن من لم يؤمن بالله عند ورود المصائب، بأن لم يلحظ قضاء الله وقدره، بل وقف مع مجرد الأسباب، أنه يخذل، ويكله الله إلى نفسه، وإذا وكل العبد إلى نفسه، فالنفس ليس عندها إلا الجزع والهلع الذي هو عقوبة عاجلة على العبد، قبل عقوبة الآخرة، على ما فرط في واجب الصبر. هذا ما يتعلق بقوله: ( وَمَنْ يُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ يَهْدِ قَلْبَهُ ) في مقام المصائب الخاص، وأما ما يتعلق بها من حيث العموم اللفظي، فإن الله أخبر أن كل من آمن أي: الإيمان المأمور به، من الإيمان بالله وملائكته وكتبه ورسله واليوم الآخر والقدر خيره وشره، وصدق إيمانه بما يقتضيه الإيمان من القيام بلوازمه وواجباته، أن هذا السبب الذي قام به العبد أكبر سبب لهداية الله له في أحواله وأقواله، وأفعاله وفي علمه وعمله.
وهذا أفضل جزاء يعطيه الله لأهل الإيمان، كما قال تعالى في الأخبار: أن المؤمنين يثبتهم الله في الحياة الدنيا وفي الآخرة.
وأصل الثبات: ثبات القلب وصبره، ويقينه عند ورود كل فتنة، فقال: يُثَبِّتُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِالْقَوْلِ الثَّابِتِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الآخِرَةِ فأهل الإيمان أهدى الناس قلوبًا، وأثبتهم عند المزعجات والمقلقات، وذلك لما معهم من الإيمان.
[ وقوله: ] ( وَأَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ ) أي: في امتثال أمرهما، واجتناب نهيهما، فإن طاعة الله وطاعة رسوله، مدار السعادة، وعنوان الفلاح، ( فَإِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ ) [ أي ] عن طاعة الله وطاعة رسوله، ( فَإِنَّمَا عَلَى رَسُولِنَا الْبَلاغُ الْمُبِينُ ) أي: يبلغكم ما أرسل به إليكم، بلاغًا يبين لكم ويتضح وتقوم عليكم به الحجة، وليس بيده من هدايتكم، ولا من حسابكم من شيء، وإنما يحاسبكم على القيام بطاعة الله وطاعة رسوله، أو عدم ذلك، عالم الغيب والشهادة.
( اللَّهُ لا إِلَهَ إِلا هُوَ ) أي: هو المستحق للعبادة والألوهية، فكل معبود سواه فباطل، ( وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ ) أي: فيلعتمدوا عليه في كل أمر نابهم، وفيما يريدون القيام به، فإنه لا يتيسر أمر من الأمور إلا بالله، ولا سبيل إلى ذلك إلا بالاعتماد على الله، ولا يتم الاعتماد على الله، حتى يحسن العبد ظنه بربه، ويثق به في كفايته الأمر الذي اعتمد عليه به، وبحسب إيمان العبد يكون توكله، فكلما قوي الإيمان قوي التوكل
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّ مِنْ أَزْوَاجِكُمْ وَأَوْلادِكُمْ عَدُوًّا لَكُمْ فَاحْذَرُوهُمْ وَإِنْ تَعْفُوا وَتَصْفَحُوا وَتَغْفِرُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ ( 14 ) إِنَّمَا أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَأَوْلادُكُمْ فِتْنَةٌ وَاللَّهُ عِنْدَهُ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ ( 15 ) .
هذا تحذير من الله للمؤمنين، من الاغترار بالأزواج والأولاد، فإن بعضهم عدو لكم، والعدو هو الذي يريد لك الشر، ووظيفتك الحذر ممن هذا وصفه، والنفس مجبولة على محبة الأزواج والأولاد، فنصح تعالى عباده أن توجب لهم هذه المحبة الانقياد لمطالب الأزواج والأولاد، ولو كان فيها ما فيها من المحذور الشرعي ورغبهم في امتثال أوامره، وتقديم مرضاته بما عنده من الأجر العظيم المشتمل على المطالب العالية والمحاب الغالية، وأن يؤثروا الآخرة على الدنيا الفانية المنقضية، ولما كان النهي عن طاعة الأزواج والأولاد، فيما هو ضرر على العبد، والتحذير من ذلك، قد يوهم الغلظة عليهم وعقابهم، أمر تعالى بالحذر منهم، والصفح عنهم والعفو، فإن في ذلك، من المصالح ما لا يمكن حصره، فقال: ( وَإِنْ تَعْفُوا وَتَصْفَحُوا وَتَغْفِرُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ ) لأن الجزاء من جنس العمل.
فمن عفا عفا الله عنه، ومن صفح صفح الله عنه، ومن غفر غفر الله له، ومن عامل الله فيما يحب، وعامل عباده كما يحبون وينفعهم، نال محبة الله ومحبة عباده، واستوثق له أمره.
فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ وَاسْمَعُوا وَأَطِيعُوا وَأَنْفِقُوا خَيْرًا لأَنْفُسِكُمْ وَمَنْ يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفْسِهِ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ ( 16 ) إِنْ تُقْرِضُوا اللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا يُضَاعِفْهُ لَكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ شَكُورٌ حَلِيمٌ ( 17 ) عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ( 18 ) .
يأمر تعالى بتقواه، التي هي امتثال أوامره واجتناب نواهيه، ويقيد ذلك بالاستطاعة والقدرة.
فهذه الآية، تدل على أن كل واجب عجز عنه العبد، أنه يسقط عنه، وأنه إذا قدر على بعض المأمور، وعجز عن بعضه، فإنه يأتي بما يقدر عليه، ويسقط عنه ما يعجز عنه، كما قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: « إذا أمرتكم بأمر فأتوا منه ما استطعتم » .
ويدخل تحت هذه القاعدة الشرعية من الفروع، ما لا يدخل تحت الحصر، وقوله: ( وَاسْمَعُوا ) أي: اسمعوا ما يعظكم الله به، وما يشرعه لكم من الأحكام، واعلموا ذلك وانقادوا له ( وَأَطِيعُوا ) الله ورسوله في جميع أموركم، ( وَأَنْفِقُوا ) من النفقات الشرعية الواجبة والمستحبة، يكن ذلك الفعل منكم خيرًا لكم في الدنيا والآخرة، فإن الخير كله في امتثال أوامر الله تعالى وقبول نصائحه، والانقياد لشرعه، والشر كله، في مخالفة ذلك.
ولكن ثم آفة تمنع كثيرًا من الناس، من النفقة المأمور بها، وهو الشح المجبولة عليه أكثر النفوس، فإنها تشح بالمال، وتحب وجوده، وتكره خروجه من اليد غاية الكراهة.
فمن وقاه الله شر شح نفسه بأن سمحت نفسه بالإنفاق النافع لها ( فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ ) لأنهم أدركوا المطلوب، ونجوا من المرهوب، بل لعل ذلك شامل لكل ما أمر به العبد، ونهي عنه، فإنه إن كانت نفسه شحيحة، لا تنقاد لما أمرت به، ولا تخرج ما قِبلها، لم يفلح، بل خسر الدنيا والآخرة، وإن كانت نفسه نفسًا سمحة مطمئنة منشرحة لشرع الله، طالبة لمرضاة الله، فإنها ليس بينها وبين فعل ما كلفت به إلا العلم به، ووصول معرفته إليها، والبصيرة بأنه مرض لله تعالى، وبذلك تفلح وتنجح وتفوز كل الفوز.
ثم رغب تعالى في النفقة فقال: ( إِنْ تُقْرِضُوا اللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا ) وهو كل نفقة كانت من الحلال، إذا قصد بها العبد وجه الله تعالى وطلب مرضاته، ووضعها في موضعها ( يُضَاعِفْهُ لَكُمْ ) النفقة بعشر أمثالها إلى سبعمائة ضعف، إلى أضعاف كثيرة.
( و ) مع المضاعفة أيضًا ( يغفر لَكُمْ ) بسبب الإنفاق والصدقة ذنوبكم، فإن الذنوب يكفرها الله بالصدقات والحسنات: إِنَّ الْحَسَنَاتِ يُذْهِبْنَ السَّيِّئَاتِ .
( وَاللَّهُ شَكُورٌ حَلِيمٌ ) لا يعاجل من عصاه، بل يمهله ولا يهمله، وَلَوْ يُؤَاخِذُ اللَّهُ النَّاسَ بِمَا كَسَبُوا مَا تَرَكَ عَلَى ظَهْرِهَا مِنْ دَابَّةٍ وَلَكِنْ يُؤَخِّرُهُمْ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى والله تعالى شكور يقبل من عباده اليسير من العمل، ويجازيهم عليه الكثير من الأجر، ويشكر تعالى لمن تحمل من أجله المشاق والأثقال، وناء بالتكاليف الثقال، ومن ترك شيئًا لله، عوضه الله خيرًا منه.
( عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ ) أي: ما غاب عن العباد من الجنود التي لا يعلمها إلا هو، وما يشاهدونه من المخلوقات، ( الْعَزِيزُ ) الذي لا يغالب ولا يمانع، الذي قهر كل الأشياء، ( الْحَكِيمُ ) في خلقه وأمره، الذي يضع الأشياء مواضعها.
تم تفسير سورة التغابن [ ولله الحمد ] .

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تفسير سورة المنافقين

مدنية
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ قَالُوا نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُهُ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَكَاذِبُونَ ( 1 ) اتَّخَذُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ جُنَّةً فَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ إِنَّهُمْ سَاءَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ ( 2 ) ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا فَطُبِعَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لا يَفْقَهُونَ ( 3 ) وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَهُمْ تُعْجِبُكَ أَجْسَامُهُمْ وَإِنْ يَقُولُوا تَسْمَعْ لِقَوْلِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ خُشُبٌ مُسَنَّدَةٌ يَحْسَبُونَ كُلَّ صَيْحَةٍ عَلَيْهِمْ هُمُ الْعَدُوُّ فَاحْذَرْهُمْ قَاتَلَهُمُ اللَّهُ أَنَّى يُؤْفَكُونَ ( 4 ) .
لما قدم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم المدينة، وكثر المسلمون في المدينة واعتز الإسلام بها ، صار أناس من أهلها من الأوس والخزرج، يظهرون الإيمان ويبطنون الكفر، ليبقى جاههم، وتحقن دماؤهم، وتسلم أموالهم، فذكر الله من أوصافهم ما به يعرفون، لكي يحذر العباد منهم، ويكونوا منهم على بصيرة، فقال: ( إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ قَالُوا ) على وجه الكذب: ( نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ ) وهذه الشهادة من المنافقين على وجه الكذب والنفاق، مع أنه لا حاجة لشهادتهم في تأييد رسوله، فإن ( اللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُهُ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَكَاذِبُونَ ) في قولهم ودعواهم، وأن ذلك ليس بحقيقة منهم.
( اتَّخَذُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ جُنَّةً ) أي: ترسًا يتترسون بها من نسبتهم إلى النفاق.
فصدوا عن سبيله بأنفسهم، وصدوا غيرهم ممن يخفى عليه حالهم، ( إِنَّهُمْ سَاءَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ ) حيث أظهروا الإيمان وأبطنوا الكفر، وأقسموا على ذلك وأوهموا صدقهم.
( ذَلِكَ ) الذي زين لهم النفاق ( بـ ) سبب ( أَنَّهُمْ ) لا يثبتون على الإيمان.
بل ( آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا فَطُبِعَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ ) بحيث لا يدخلها الخير أبدًا، ( فَهُمْ لا يَفْقَهُونَ ) ما ينفعهم، ولا يعون ما يعود بمصالحهم.
( وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَهُمْ تُعْجِبُكَ أَجْسَامُهُمْ ) من روائها ونضارتها، ( وَإِنْ يَقُولُوا تَسْمَعْ لِقَوْلِهِمْ ) أي: من حسن منطقهم تستلذ لاستماعه، فأجسامهم وأقوالهم معجبة، ولكن ليس وراء ذلك من الأخلاق الفاضلة والهدى الصالح شيء، ولهذا قال: ( كَأَنَّهُمْ خُشُبٌ مُسَنَّدَةٌ ) لا منفعة فيها، ولا ينال منها إلا الضرر المحض، ( يَحْسَبُونَ كُلَّ صَيْحَةٍ عَلَيْهِمْ ) وذلك لجبنهم وفزعهم وضعف قلوبهم، والريب الذي في قلوبهم يخافون أن يطلع عليهم.
فهؤلاء ( هُمُ الْعَدُوُّ ) على الحقيقة، لأن العدو البارز المتميز، أهون من العدو الذي لا يشعر به، وهو مخادع ماكر، يزعم أنه ولي، وهو العدو المبين، ( فَاحْذَرْهُمْ قَاتَلَهُمُ اللَّهُ أَنَّى يُؤْفَكُونَ ) أي: كيف يصرفون عن الدين الإسلامي بعد ما تبينت أدلته، واتضحت معالمه، إلى الكفر الذي لا يفيدهم إلا الخسار والشقاء.

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْا يَسْتَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ لَوَّوْا رُءُوسَهُمْ وَرَأَيْتَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ وَهُمْ مُسْتَكْبِرُونَ ( 5 ) سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَسْتَغْفَرْتَ لَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ لَنْ يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ ( 6 ) .
( وَإِذَا قِيلَ ) لهؤلاء المنافقين ( تَعَالَوْا يَسْتَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ) عما صدر منكم، لتحسن أحوالكم، وتقبل أعمالكم، امتنعوا من ذلك أشد الامتناع، و ( لَوَّوْا رُءُوسَهُمْ ) امتناعًا من طلب الدعاء من الرسول، ( وَرَأَيْتَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ ) عن الحق بغضًا له ( وَهُمْ مُسْتَكْبِرُونَ ) عن اتباعه بغيًا وعنادًا، فهذه حالهم عندما يدعون إلى طلب الدعاء من الرسول، وهذا من لطف الله وكرامته لرسوله، حيث لم يأتوا إليه، فيستغفر لهم، فإنه سواء استغفر لهم أم لم يستغفر لهم فلن يغفر الله لهم، وذلك لأنهم قوم فاسقون، خارجون عن طاعة الله، مؤثرون للكفر على الإيمان، فلذلك لا ينفع فيهم استغفار الرسول، لو استغفر لهم كما قال تعالى: اسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ أَوْ لا تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ إِنْ تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ سَبْعِينَ مَرَّةً فَلَنْ يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ ( إِنَّ اللَّهَ لا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ ) .
هُمُ الَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ لا تُنْفِقُوا عَلَى مَنْ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ حَتَّى يَنْفَضُّوا وَلِلَّهِ خَزَائِنُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَلَكِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لا يَفْقَهُونَ ( 7 ) يَقُولُونَ لَئِنْ رَجَعْنَا إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ لَيُخْرِجَنَّ الأَعَزُّ مِنْهَا الأَذَلَّ وَلِلَّهِ الْعِزَّةُ وَلِرَسُولِهِ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلَكِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لا يَعْلَمُونَ ( 8 ) .
وهذا من شدة عداوتهم للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم والمسلمين، لما رأوا اجتماع أصحابه وائتلافهم، ومسارعتهم في مرضاة الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم، قالوا بزعمهم الفاسد:
( لا تُنْفِقُوا عَلَى مَنْ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ حَتَّى يَنْفَضُّوا ) فإنهم - بزعمهم - لولا أموال المنافقين ونفقاتهم عليهم، لما اجتمعوا في نصرة دين الله، وهذا من أعجب العجب، أن يدعى هؤلاء المنافقون الذين هم أحرص الناس على خذلان الدين، وأذية المسلمين، مثل هذه الدعوى، التي لا تروج إلا على من لا علم له بحقائق الأمور ولهذا قال الله ردًا لقولهم: ( وَلِلَّهِ خَزَائِنُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأرْضِ ) فيؤتي الرزق من يشاء، ويمنعه من يشاء، وييسر الأسباب لمن يشاء، ويعسرها على من يشاء، ( وَلَكِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لا يَفْقَهُونَ ) فلذلك قالوا تلك المقالة، التي مضمونها أن خزائن الرزق في أيديهم، وتحت مشيئتهم.
( يَقُولُونَ لَئِنْ رَجَعْنَا إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ لَيُخْرِجَنَّ الأعَزُّ مِنْهَا الأذَلَّ ) وذلك في غزوة المريسيع، حين صار بين بعض المهاجرين والأنصار، بعض كلام كدر الخواطر، ظهر حينئذ نفاق المنافقين، وأظهروا ما في نفوسهم .
وقال كبيرهم، عبد الله بن أبي بن سلول: ما مثلنا ومثل هؤلاء - يعني المهاجرين- إلا كما قال القائل: « غذ كلبك يأكلك »
وقال: لئن رجعنا إلى المدينة ( لَيُخْرِجَنَّ الأعَزُّ مِنْهَا الأذَلَّ ) بزعمه أنه هو وإخوانه من المنافقين الأعزون، وأن رسول الله ومن معه هم الأذلون، والأمر بعكس ما قال هذا المنافق، فلهذا قال [ تعالى: ] ( وَلِلَّهِ الْعِزَّةُ وَلِرَسُولِهِ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ) فهم الأعزاء، والمنافقون وإخوانهم من الكفار [ هم ] الأذلاء. ( وَلَكِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لا يَعْلَمُونَ ) [ ذلك ] فلذلك زعموا أنهم الأعزاء، اغترارًا بما هم عليه من الباطل، ثم قال تعالى:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا تُلْهِكُمْ أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَلا أَوْلادُكُمْ عَنْ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ ( 9 ) وَأَنْفِقُوا مِنْ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ فَيَقُولَ رَبِّ لَوْلا أَخَّرْتَنِي إِلَى أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ فَأَصَّدَّقَ وَأَكُنْ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ ( 10 ) وَلَنْ يُؤَخِّرَ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِذَا جَاءَ أَجَلُهَا وَاللَّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ ( 11 ) .
يأمر تعالى عباده المؤمنين بالإكثار من ذكره، فإن في ذلك الربح والفلاح، والخيرات الكثيرة، وينهاهم أن تشغلهم أموالهم وأولادهم عن ذكره، فإن محبة المال والأولاد مجبولة عليها أكثر النفوس، فتقدمها على محبة الله، وفي ذلك الخسارة العظيمة، ولهذا قال تعالى: ( وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ ) أي: يلهه ماله وولده، عن ذكـر الله ( فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ ) للسعادة الأبدية، والنعيم المقيم، لأنهم آثروا ما يفنى على ما يبقى، قال تعالى: إِنَّمَا أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَأَوْلادُكُمْ فِتْنَةٌ وَاللَّهُ عِنْدَهُ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ .
وقوله: ( وَأَنْفِقُوا مِنْ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ ) يدخل في هذا، النفقات الواجبة، من الزكاة والكفارات ونفقة الزوجات، والمماليك، ونحو ذلك، والنفقات المستحبة، كبذل المال في جميع المصالح، وقال: ( مِمَّا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ ) ليدل ذلك على أنه تعالى، لم يكلف العباد من النفقة، ما يعنتهم ويشق عليهم، بل أمرهم بإخراج جزء مما رزقهم الله الذي يسره لهم ويسر لهم أسبابه.
فليشكروا الذي أعطاهم، بمواساة إخوانهم المحتاجين، وليبادروا بذلك، الموت الذي إذا جاء، لم يمكن العبد أن يأتي بمثقال ذرة من الخير، ولهذا قال: ( مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ فَيَقُولَ ) متحسرًا على ما فرط في وقت الإمكان، سائلا الرجعة التي هي محال: ( رَبِّ لَوْلا أَخَّرْتَنِي إِلَى أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ ) أي: لأتدارك ما فرطت فيه، ( فَأَصَّدَّقَ ) من مالي، ما به أنجو من العذاب، وأستحق به جزيل الثواب، ( وَأَكُنْ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ ) بأداء المأمورات كلها، واجتناب المنهيات، ويدخل في هذا، الحج وغيره، وهذا السؤال والتمني، قد فات وقته، ولا يمكن تداركه، ولهذا قال: ( وَلَنْ يُؤَخِّرَ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِذَا جَاءَ أَجَلُهَا ) المحتوم لها ( وَاللَّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ ) من خير وشر، فيجازيكم على ما علمه منكم، من النيات والأعمال.
تم تفسير سورة المنافقين،  ولله الحمد

ENGLISH COMMENTARY..(2 - AL-BAQARAH) ...page 12



2 - AL-BAQARAH



1.Alif. Lam. Mim. (1) 

1 - Regarding the possible significance of the single letters called al -mugatta `dt, which occur at the beginning of some sarahs of the Quean, see Appendix II, where the various theories bearing on this subject are discussed. 
2.HIS DIVINE WRIT - let there be no doubt about it � is [meant to be] a guidance for all the God-conscious (2) 

2 - The conventional translation of muttagf as "God-fearing" does not adequately render the positive content of this expression - namely, the awareness of His all-presence and the desire to mould one's existence in the light of this awareness; while the interpretation adopted by some translators, "one who guards himself against evil" or "one who is careful of his duty", does not give more than one particular aspect of the concept of God-consciousness. 
3.who believe in [the existence of] that which is beyond the reach of human perception, (3) and are constant in prayer, and spend on others out of what We provide for them as sustenance; (4) 

3 - Al-ghayb (commonly, and erroneously, translated as "the Unseen") is used in the Qurlan to denote all those sectors or phases of reality which lie beyond the range of human perception and cannot, therefore, be proved or disproved by scientific observation or even adequately comprised within the accepted categories of speculative thought: as, for instance, the existence of God and of a definite purpose underlying the universe, life after death, the real nature of time, the existence of spiritual forces and their inter-action, and so forth. Only a person who is convinced that the ultimate reality comprises far more than our observable environment can attain to belief in God and, thus, to a belief that life has meaning and purpose. By pointing out that it is "a guidance for those who believe in the existence of that which is beyond human perception", the Qur'an says, in effect, that it will - of necessity - remain a closed book to all whose minds cannot accept this undamental premise. 

4 - Ar-rizq ("provision of sustenance") applies to all that may be of benefit to man, whether it be concrete (like food, property, offspring, etc.) or abstract (like knowledge, piety, etc.). The "spending on others" is mentioned here in one breath with God-consciousness and prayer because it is precisely in such selfless acts that true piety comes to its full fruition. It should be borne in mind that the verb anfaqa (lit., "he spent") is always used in the Qur'an to denote spending freely on, or as a gift to, others, whatever the motive may be. 
4.and who believe in that which has been bestowed from on high upon thee, [O Prophet,] as well as in that which was bestowed before thy time: (5) for it is they who in their innermost are certain of the life to come!

5 - This is a reference to one of the fundamental doctrines of the Qur'an: the doctrine of the historical continuity of divine revelation. Life - so the Qur'an teaches us - is not a series of unconnected jumps but a continuous, organic process: and this law applies also to the life of the mind, of which man's religious experience (in its cumulative sense) is a part. Thus, the religion of the Qur'an can be properly understood only against the background of the great monotheistic faiths which preceded it, and which, according to Muslim belief, culminate and achieve their final formulation in the faith of Islam. 
5.It is they who follow the guidance [which comes from their Sustainer; and it is they, they who' shall attain to a happy state!
6.BEHOLD, as for those who are bent on denying the truth (6) - it is all one to them whether thou warnest them or dost not warn them: they will not believe. 

6 - In contrast with the frequently occurring term al-kafiran ("those who deny the truth"), the use of the past tense in alladhina kafaru indicates conscious intent, and is, therefore, appropriately rendered as "those who are bent on denying the truth". This interpretation is supported by many commentators, especially Zamakhshari (who, in his commentary on this verse, uses the expression, "those who have deliberately resolved upon their kufr"). Elsewhere in the Qur'an such people are spoken of as having "hearts with which they fail to grasp the truth, and eyes with which they fail to see, and ears with which they fail to hear" (7 : 179). - For an explanation of the terms kufr ("denial of the truth"), kafir ("one who denies the truth"), etc., see note 4 on 74: 10, where this concept appears for the first time in Qur'anic revelation. 
7.God; has sealed their hearts and their hearing, and over their eyes is a veil; (7)and awesome suffering awaits them. 

7 - A reference to the natural law instituted by God, whereby a person who persistently adheres to false beliefs and refuses to listen to the voice of truth gradually loses the ability to perceive the truth, "so that finally, as it were, a seal is set upon his heart" (Raghib). Since it is God who has instituted all laws of nature -which, in their aggregate, are called sunnat Allah (�the way of God") -this "sealing" is attributed to Him: but it is obviously a consequence of man's free choice and not an act of "predestination". Similarly, the suffering which, in the life to come, is in store for those who during their life in this world have wilfully remained deaf and blind to the truth, is a natural consequence of their free choice -just as happiness in the life to come is the natural consequence of man's endeavour to attain to righteousness and inner illumination. It is in this sense . that the Quc'anic references to God's "reward" and "punishment" must be understood. 
8.And there are people who say, "We do believe in God and the Last Day," the while they do not [really]. believe.
9.They would deceive God and those who have attained to faith-the while they deceive none but themselves, and perceive it not.
10.In their hearts is disease, and so God lets their disease increase; and grievous suffering awaits them because of their persistent lying. (8) 

8 - i.e., before God and man-and to themselves. It is generally assumed that the people to whom this passage alludes in the first instance are the hypocrites of Medina who, during the early years after the hijrah, outwardly professed their adherence to Islam while remaining inwardly unconvinced of the truth of Muhammad's message. However, as is always the case with Quranic allusions to contemporary or historical events, the above and the following verses have a general, timeless import inasmuch as they refer to all people who are prone to deceive themselves in order to evade a spiritual commitment. 
11.And when they are told, "Do not spread corruption on earth," they answer, "We are but improving things!"
12.Oh, verily, it is they, they who are spreading corruption = but they perceive it not? (9) 

9 - It would seem that this is an allusion to people who oppose any "intrusion" of religious considerations into the realm of practical affairs, and thus-often unwittingly, thinking that they are "but improving things"-contribute to the moral and social confusion referred to in the subsequent verse. 
13.And when they are told, "Believe as other people believe," they answer, "Shall we believe as the weak-minded believe?" Oh, verily, it is they, they who are weak-minded -but they know it not!
14.And when they meet those who have attained to faith, they assert, "We believe [as you believe]"; but when they find themselves alone with their- evil impulses, (10) they say, "Verily, we are with you; we were only mocking!" 

10 - Lit., "their satans" (shaydtin, pl. of shaytdn). In accordance with ancient Arabic usage, this term often denotes people "who, through their insolent persistence in evildoing (tamarrud), have become like satans" (Zamakhshari): an interpretation of the above verse accepted by most of the commentators. However, the term shaytan -which is derived from the verb shatana, "he was for "became"] remote [from all that is good and true]" (Lisdn al -Arab, Tai al= Aras) - is often used in the Quean to describe the "satanic" (i.e., exceedingly evil) propensities in man's own soul, and especially all impulses which run counter to truth and morality (Raghib). 
15.God will requite them for their mockery, (11) and will leave them for a while in their overweening arrogance, blindly stumbling to and fro: 

11 - Lit., "God will mock at them". My rendering is in conformity with the generally accepted interpretation of this phrase. 
16.[for] it is they who have taken error in exchange for guidance; and neither has their bargain brought them gain, nor have they found guidance [elsewhere].
17.Their parable is that of people who kindle a fire: but as soon as it has illumined all around them, God takes away their light and leaves them in utter darkness, wherein they cannot see:
18.deaf, dumb, blind - and they cannot turn back.
19.Or [the parable] of a violent cloudburst in the sky, with utter darkness, thunder and lightning: they put their fingers into their ears to keep out the peals of thunder, in terror of death; but God encompasses [with His might] all who deny the truth.
20.The lightning well-nigh takes away their sight; whenever it gives them light, they advance therein, and whenever darkness falls around them, they stand still. And if God so willed, He could indeed take away their hearing and their sight: (12) for, verily, God has the power to will anything. 

12 - The obvious implication is: "but He does not will this"-that is, He does not preclude the possibility that "those who have taken error in exchange for guidance" may one day perceive the truth and mend their ways. The expression "their hearing and their sight" is obviously a metonym for man's instinctive ability to discern between good and evil and, hence, for his moral responsibility. - In the parable of the "people who kindle a fire" we have, I believe, an allusion to some people's exclusive reliance on what is termed the "scientific approach" as a means to illumine and explain all the imponderables of life and faith, and the resulting arrogant refusal to admit that anything could be beyond the reach of man's intellect. This "overweening arrogance", as the Qur' an terms it, unavoidably exposes its devotees - and the society dominated by them - to the lightning of disillusion which "well-nigh takes away their sight", i.e., still further weakens their moral perception and deepens their "terror of death".
21.O MANKIND! Worship your Sustainer, who has created you and those who lived before you, so that you might remain conscious of Him
22.who has made the earth a resting-place for you and the sky a canopy, and has sent down water from the sky and thereby brought forth fruits for your sustenance: do not, then, claim that there is any power that could rival God, (13) when you know [that He is One]. 

13 - Lit., "do not give God any compeers" (andad, pl. of nidd ). There is full agreement among all commentators that this term implies any object of adoration to which some or all of God's qualities are ascribed, whether it be conceived as a deity "in its own right" or a saint supposedly possessing certain divine or semi-divine powers. This meaning can be brought out only by a free rendering of the above phrase. 
23.And if you doubt any part of what We have, bestowed from on high, step by step, upon Our servant [Muhammad], (14)then produce a surah of similar merit, and call upon any other than God to bear witness for you (15) -if what you say is true! 

14 - I.e., the message of which the doctrine of God's oneness and uniqueness is the focal point. By the use of the word "doubt" (rayb), this passage is meant to recall the opening sentence of this sarah : "This divine writ - let there be no doubt about it.. .", etc. The gradualness of revelation is implied in the grammatical form nazzalnd -which is important in this context inasmuch as the opponents of the Prophet argued that the Qur'an could not be of divine origin because it was being revealed gradually, and not in one piece (Zamakhshari). 

15 - Lit., "come forward with a surah like it, and call upon your witnesses other than God" -namely, "to attest that your hypothetical literary effort could be deemed equal to any part of the Qui'an." This challenge occurs in two other places as well (10: 38 and 11 : 13, in which latter case the unbelievers are called upon to produce ten chapters of comparable merit); see also 17 : 88. 
24.And if you cannot do it-and most certainly you cannot do it-then be conscious of the fire whose fuel is human beings and stones (16) which awaits all who deny the truth! 

16 - This evidently denotes all objects of worship to which men turn instead of God-their powerlessness and inefficacy being symbolized by the lifelessness of stones-while the expression "human beings" stands here for human actions deviating from the way of truth (cf. Mandr 1, 197): the remembrance of all of which is bound to increase the sinner's suffering in the hereafter, referred to in the Qur'an as "hell".
25.But unto those who have attained to faith and do good works give the glad tiding that theirs shall be gardens through which running waters flow. Whenever they are granted fruits therefrom as their appointed sustenance, they will say, "It is this that in days of yore was granted to us as our sustenance!"-for they shall be given something that will recall that [past]. (17) And there shall they have spouses pure, and there shall they abide. 

17 - Lit., "something resembling it". Various interpretations, some of them of an esoteric and highly speculative nature, have been given to this passage. For the manner in which I have translated it I am indebted to Muhammad `Abduh (in Mandr I, 232 f.), who interprets the phrase, "It is this that in days of yore was granted to us as our sustenance" as meaning: "It is this that we have been promised during our life on earth as a requital for faith and righteous deeds." In other words, man's actions and attitudes in this world will be mirrored in their "fruits", or consequences, in the life to come - as has been expressed elsewhere in the Qur'an in the verses, "And he who shall have done an atom's weight of good, shall behold it; and he who shall have done an atom's weight of evil, shall behold it" (99 : 7.-8). As regards the reference to "spouses" in the next sentence, it is to be Aoted that the term zawi (of which azwdj is the plural) signifies either of the two components of a couple-that is, the male as well as the female. 
26.Behold, God does not disdain to propound a parable of a gnat, or of something [even] less than that. (18)Now, as for those who have attained to faith, they know that it is the truth from their Sustainer - whereas those who are bent on denying the truth say, "What could God mean by this parable?" In this way does He cause many a one to go astray, just as He guides many a one aright: but none does He cause thereby to go astray save the iniquitous, 

18 - Lit., "something above it", i.e., relating to the quality of smallness stressed here-as one would say, "such-and-such a person is the lowest of people, and even more than that" (Zamakhsharl). The reference to "God's parables", following as it does immediately upon a mention of the gardens of paradise and the suffering through hell-fire in the life to come, is meant to bring out the allegorical nature of this imagery. 
27.who break their bond with God after it has been established [in their nature], (19) and cut asunder what God has bidden to be joined, and spread corruption on earth: these it is that shall be the losers. 

19 - The "bond with God" (conventionally translated as "God's covenant") apparently refers here to man's moral obligation to use his inborn gifts-intellectual as well. as ohvsical-in the way intended for them by God. The "establishment" of this bond arises from the faculty of reason which, if properly used, must lead man to a realization of his own weakness and dependence on a causative power and, thus, to a gradual cognition of God's will with reference to his own behaviour. This interpretation of the "bond with God" seems to be indicated by the fact that there is no mention of any specific "covenant" in either the preceding or the subsequent verses of the passage under consideration. The deliberate omission of any explanatory reference in this connection suggests that the expression "bond with God" stands for something that is rooted in the human situation as such, and can, therefore, be perceived instinctively as well as through conscious experience: namely, that innate relationship with God which makes Him "closer to man than his neck-vein" (50: 16). For an explanation of the subsequent reference to "what God has bidden to be joined", see surah 13, note 43. 
28.How can you refuse to acknowledge God, seeing that you were lifeless and He gave you life, and that He will cause you to die and then will bring you again to life, whereupon unto Him you will be brought back?
29.He it is who has created for you all that is on earth, and has applied His design to the heavens and fashioned them into seven heavens; (20) and He alone has full knowledge of everything. 

20 - 20 The term samd' ("heaven" or "sky") is applied to anything that is spread like a canopy above any other thing. Thus, the visible skies which stretch like a vault above the earth and form, as it were, its canopy, are called samd': and this is the primary meaning of this term in the Qur'an; in a wider sense, it has the connotation of "cosmic system". As regards the "seven heavens", it is to be borne in mind that in Arabic usage - and apparently in other Semitic languages as well - the number "seven" is often synonymous with "several" (see Lisan al=Arab), just as "seventy" or "seven hundred" often means "many" or "very many" (Tdj al= Arus). This, taken together with the accepted linguistic definition that "every samd' is a samd' with regard to what is below it" (Raghib), may explain the "seven heavens" as denoting the multiplicity of cosmic systems. - For my rendering of thumma, at the beginning of this sentence, as "and", see surah 7, first part of note 43. 
30.AND LO! (21) Thy Sustainer said unto the angels: "Behold, I am about to establish upon earth one who shall inherit it." (22) They said: "Wilt Thou place on it such as will spread corruption thereon and shed blood -whereas it is we who extol Thy limitless glory, and praise Thee, and hallow Thy name?� [God] answered: "Verily, I know that which you do not know." 

21 - The interjection "lo" seems to be the only adequate rendering, in this context, of the particle idh, which is usually -and without sufficient attention to its varying uses in Arabic construction - translated as "when". Although the latter rendering is often justified, idh is also used to indicate "the sudden, or unexpected, occurrence of a thing" (cf. Lane 1, 39), or a sudden turn in the discourse. The subsequent allegory, relating as it does to the faculty of reason implanted in man, is logically connected with the preceding passages. 

22 - Lit., "establish on earth a successor" or a "vice-gerent". The term khalffah -derived from the verb >khalafa, "he succeeded [another] " - is used in this allegory to denote man's rightful supremacy on earth, which is most suitably rendered by the expression "he shall inherit the earth" (in the sense of being given possession of it). See also 6: 165, 27: 62 and 35 :39, where all human beings are - spoken of as khald'if al-ard. 
31.And He imparted unto Adam the names of all things; (23) then He brought them within the ken of the angels and said: "Declare unto Me the names of these [things], if what you say is true." (24) 

23 - Lit., "all the names". The term ism ("name") implies, according to all philologists, an expression "conveying the knowledge [of a thing] ... applied to denote a substance or an accident or an attribute, for the purpose of distinction" (Lane IV, 1435): in philosophical terminology, a "concept". From this it may legitimately be inferred that the "knowledge of all the names" denotes here man's faculty of logical definition and, thus, of conceptual thinking. That by "Adam" the whole human race is meant here becomes obvious from the preceding reference, by the angels, to "such as will spread corruption on earth and will shed blood", as well as from 7 : 11. 

24 - Namely, that it was they who, by virtue of their purity, were better qualified to "inherit the earth".
32.They replied: "Limitless art Thou in Thy glory! No knowledge have we save that which Thou hast imparted unto us. Verily, Thou alone art all-knowing, truly wise."
33.Said He: "O Adam, convey unto them the names of these [things]." And as soon as [Adam] had conveyed unto them their names, [God] said: "Did I not say unto you, `Verily, I alone know the hidden reality of the heavens and the earth, and know all that you bring into the open and all. that you would conceal'?"
34.And when We told the angels, "Prostrate yourselves before Adam!" (25)-they all prostrated themselves, save Ibiis, who refused and gloried in his arrogance: and thus he became one of those who deny the truth. (26) 

25 - To show that, by virtue of his ability to think conceptually, man is superior in this respect even to the angels. 

26 - For an explanation of the name of the Fallen Angel, see surah 7, note 10. The fact of this "rebellion", repeatedly stressed in the Qur'an, has led some of the commentators to the conclusion that he could not have been one of the angels, since these are incapable of sinning: "they do not bear themselves with false pride. .. and they do whatever they are bidden to do" (16: 49-50). As against this, other commentators point to the Qur'anic phrasing of God's command to the angels and of Iblis' refusal to obey, which makes it absolutely clear that at the time of that command he was indeed one of the heavenly host. Hence, we must assume that his "rebellion" has a purely symbolic significance and is, in reality, the outcome of a specific function assigned to him by God (see note 31 on 15 : 41). 
35.And We said: "O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in this garden, (27) and eat freely thereof, both of you, whatever you may wish; but do not approach this one tree, lest you become wrongdoers." (28) 

27 - Lit., "the garden". There is a considerable difference of opinion among the commentators as to what is meant here by "garden": a garden in the earthly sense, or the paradise that awaits the righteous in the life to come, or some special garden in the heavenly regions? According to some of the earliest commentators (see Mandr I, 277), an earthly abode is here alluded to-namely, an environment of perfect ease, happiness and innocence. In any case, this story of Adam is obviously one of the allegories referred to in 3: 7. 

28 - This tree is alluded to elsewhere in the Qur'an (20: 120) as "the tree of life eternal", and in the
36.But Satan caused them both to stumble therein, and thus brought about the loss of their erstwhile state. (29) And so We said: "Down with you, [and be henceforth] enemies unto one another; and on earth you shall have your abode and your livelihood for a while !" (30) 

29 - Lit., "brought them out of what they had been in": i.e., by inducing them to eat the fruit of the forbidden tree. 

30 - With this sentence, the address changes from the hitherto-observed dual form to the plural: a further indication that the moral of the story relates to the human race as a whole. See also surah 7, note 16. 
37.Thereupon Adam received words [of guidance] from his Sustainer, and He accepted his repentance: for, verily, He alone is the-Acceptor of Repentance, the Dispenser of Grace.
38.[For although] We did say, "Down with you all from this [state]," there shall, none the less, most certainly come unto you guidance from Me: and those who follow My guidance need have no fear, and neither shall they grieve;
39.but those who are bent on denying the truth and giving the lie to Our messages - they are destined for the fire, and therein shall they abide.
40.O CHILDREN of Israel! (31) Remember those blessings of Mine with which I graced you, and fulfil your promise unto Me, [whereupon] I shall fulfil My promise unto you; and of Me, of Me stand in awe! 

31 - This passage connects directly with the preceding passages in that it refers to the continuous guidance vouchsafed to man through divine revelation. The reference to the children of Israel at this point, as in so many other places in the Quean, arises from the fact that their religious beliefs represented an earlier phase of the monotheistic concept which culminates in the revelation of the Qur' an. 
41.Believe in that which I have [now] bestowed from on high, confirming the truth already in your possession, and be not foremost among those who deny its truth; and do not barter away My messages for a trifling gain; (32) and of Me, of Me be conscious! 

32 - A reference to the persistent Jewish belief that they alone among all nations have been graced by divine revelation. The "trifling gain" is their conviction that they are "God's chosen people" - a claim which the Quran consistently refutes. 
42.And do not overlay the truth with falsehood, and do not knowingly suppress the truth; (33) 

33 - By "overlaying the truth with falsehood" is meant the corrupting of the Biblical text, of which the Qur'an frequently accuses the Jews (and which has since been established by objective textual criticism), while the "suppression of the truth" refers to their disregard or deliberately false interpretation of the words of Moses in the Biblical passage, "The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren. like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken" (Deuteronomy xviii, 15), and the words attributed to God Himself, "I will raise them up a prophet from among thy brethren, like unto thee, and will put My words in his mouth" (Deuteronomy xviii, 18). The "brethren" of the children of Israel are obviously the Arabs, and particularly the musta `ribah ("Arabianized") group among them, which traces its descent to Ishmael and Abraham: and since it is to this group that the Arabian Prophet's own tribe, the Quraysh, belonged, the above Biblical passages must be taken as referring to his advent. 
43.and be constant in prayer, and spend in charity, (34) and bow down in prayer with all who thus bow down.

34 - In Islamic Law, zakah denotes an obligatory tax, incumbent on Muslims, which is meant to purify a person's capital and income from the taint of selfishness (hence the name). The proceeds of this tax are to,be spent mainly, but not exclusively, on the poor. Whenever, therefore, this term bears the above legal implication, I translate it as "the purifying dues". Since, however, in this verse it refers to the children of Israel and obviously implies only acts of charity towards the poor, it is more appropriate to translate it as "almsgiving" or "charity". I have also adopted this latter rendering in all instances where the term zakah, though relating to Muslims, does not apply specifically to the obligatory tax as such (e.g., in 73 : 20, where this term appears for the first time in the chronology of revelation). 
44.Do you bid other people to be pious, the while you forget your own selves -and yet you recite the divine writ? Will you not, then, use your reason? ;
45.And seek aid in steadfast patience and prayer: and this, indeed, is a hard thing for all but the humble in spirit,
46.who know with certainty that they shall meet their Sustainer and that unto Him they shall return.
47.O children of Israel! Remember those blessings of Mine with which I graced you, and how I favoured you above all other people;
48.and remain conscious of [the coming of] a Day when no human being shall in the least avail another, nor shall intercession be accepted from any of them, nor ransom taken from them, (35) and none shall be succoured. 

35 - The "taking of ransom (`adl)" is an obvious allusion to the Christian doctrine of vicarious redemption as well ass to the Jewish idea that "the chosen people"-as the Jews considered themselves-would be exempt from punishment on the Day of Judgment. Both these ideas are categorically refuted in the Qur'an. 
49.And [remember the time] when We saved you from Pharaoh's people, who afflicted you with cruel suffering, slaughtering your sons and sparing [only] your women (36) - which was an awesome trial from your Sustainer; 

36 - See Exodus i, 15-16, 22. 
50.and when We cleft the sea before you, and thus saved you and caused Pharaoh's people to drown before your very eyes;
51.and when We appointed for Moses forty nights [on Mount Sinai], and in his absence you took to worshipping the [golden] calf, and thus became evildoers:
52.yet, even after that, We blotted out this your sin, so that you might have cause to be grateful. (37) 

37 - The story of the golden calf is dealt with at greater length in 7 : 148 ff. and 20: 85 ff. Regarding the crossing of the Red Sea, to which verse 50 above alludes, see 20: 77-78 and 26 : 63-66, as well as the corresponding notes. The forty nights (and days) which Moses spent on Mount Sinai are mentioned again in 7 : 142. 
53.And [remember the time] when We vouchsafed unto Moses the divine writ-and [thus] a standard by which to discern the true from the false(38)-so that you might be guided aright; 

38 - Muhammad `Abduh amplifies the above interpretation of al-furgdn (adopted by Tabari, Zamakhshari and other great commentators) by maintaining that it applies also to "human reason, which enables us to distinguish the true from the false" (Mandr 111, 160), apparently basing this wider interpretation on 8 : 41, where the battle of Badr is described as yawm al-furgdn ("the day on which the true was distinguished from the false"). While the term furgdn is often used in the Qur'an to describe one or another of the revealed scriptures, and particularly the Qur'an itself, it has undoubtedly also the connotation pointed out by `Abduh: for instance, in 8 : 29, where it clearly refers to the faculty of moral valuation which distinguishes every human being who is truly conscious of God. 
54.and when Moses said unto his people: "O my people! Verily, you have sinned against yourselves by worshipping the calf; turn, then. in repentance to your Maker and mortify yourselves; (39) this will be the best for you in your Maker's sight." And thereupon He accepted your repentance: for, behold, He alone is the Acceptor of Repentance, the Dispenser of Grace. 

39 - Lit., "kill yourselves" or, according to some commentators, "kill one another". This literal interpretation (probably based on the Biblical account in Exodus xxxii, 26-28) is not, however, convincing in view of the immediately preceding call to repentance and the subsequent statement that this repentance was accepted by God. I incline, therefore, to the interpretation given by `Abd al-Jabbar (quoted by Razi in his commentary on this verse) to the effect that the expression "kill yourselves" is used here in a metaphorical sense (majazan), i.e., "mortify yourselves".
55.And [remember] when you said, "O Moses. indeed we shall not believe thee unto we see God face to face!" - whereupon the thunderbolt of punishment (40) overtook you before your very eyes. 

40 - The Quc'an does not state what form this "thunderbolt of punishment" (as -sd `igah) took. The lexicographers give various interpretations to this word, but all agree on the element of vehemence and suddenness inherent in it (see Lane IV, 1690). 
56.But We raised you again after you had been as dead, (41) so that you might have cause to be grateful. 

41 - Lit., "after your death". The expression mawt does not always denote physical death. Arab philologists - e.g., Raghib - explain the verb mataa (lit., "he died") as having, in certain contexts, the meaning of "he became deprived of sensation, dead as to the senses"; and occasionally as "deprived of the intellectual faculty, intellectually dead"; and sometimes even as "he slept" (see Lane VII, 2741). 
57.And We caused the clouds to comfort you with their shade, and sent down unto you manna and quails. [saying,] "Partake of the good things which We have provided for you as sustenance." And [by all their sinning] they did no harm unto Us-but [only] against their own selves did they sin.
58.And [remember the time] when We said: "Enter this land, (42) and eat of its food as you may desire. abundantly; but enter the gate humbly and say, `Remove Thou from us the burden of our sins', (43) [whereupon] We shall forgive you your sins, and shall amply reward the doers of good." 

42 - The word qaryah primarily denotes a "village" or "town", but is also used in the sense of "land". Here it apparently refers to Palestine. 

43 - This interpretation of the word hittah is recorded by most of the lexicographers (cf. Lane II, 592) on the basis of what many Companions of the Prophet said about it (for the relevant quotations, see Ibn Kathir in his commentary on this verse). Thus, the children of Israel were admonished to take possession of the promised land ("enter the gate") in a spirit of humility (lit., "prostrating yourselves"), and not to regard it as something that was "due" to them. 
59.But those who were bent on evildoing substituted another saying for that which had been given them: (44 and so We sent down upon those evildoers a plague from heaven in requital for all their iniquity. 

44 - According to several Traditions (extensively quoted by Ibn Kathir), they played, with a derisive intent� upon the word hittah, substituting for it something irrelevant or meaningless. Muhammad `Abduh, however, is of the opinion that the "saying" referred to in verse 58 is merely a metaphor for an attitude of mind demanded of them, and that, correspondingly, the "substitution" signifies here a wilful display of arrogance in disregard of God's command (see Manar I, 324 f.). 
60.And [remember] when Moses prayed for water for his people and We replied, "Strike the rock with thy staff!"-whereupon twelve springs gushed forth from it, so that all the people knew whence to drink. (45) [And Moses said:] "Eat and drink the sustenance provided by God, and do not act wickedly on earth by spreading corruption." 

45 - Le., according to their tribal divisions. 
61.And [remember] when you said: "O Moses, indeed we cannot endure but one kind of food; pray, then, to thy Sustainer that He bring forth for us aught of what grows from the earth - of its herbs, its cucumbers, its garlic, its lentils, its onions." Said [Moses]: "Would you take a lesser thing in exchange for what is [so much] better? (46) Go back in shame to Egypt, and then you can have what you are asking for!" (47) And so, ignominy and humiliation overshadowed them, and they earned the burden of God's condemnation: all this, because they persisted in denying the truth of God's messages and in slaying the prophets against all right: all this, because they rebelled [against God], and persisted in transgressing the bounds of what is right. (48) 

46 - Le., "Would you exchange your freedom for the paltry comforts which you enjoyed in your Egyptian captivity?" In the course of their wanderings in the desert of Sinai, many Jews looked back with longing to the comparative security of their life in Egypt, as has been explicitly stated in the Bible (Numbers xi), and is, moreover, evident from Moses' allusion to it in the next sentence of the above Qur'anic passage. 

47 - The verb habata means, literally, "he went down a declivity"; it is also used figuratively in the sense of falling from dignity and becoming mean and abject (cf. Lane VIII, 2876). Since the bitter exclamation of Moses cannot be taken literally, both of the above meanings of the verb may be combined in this context and agreeably translated as "go back in shame to Egypt".

48 - This passage obviously refers to a later phase of Jewish history. That the Jews actually did kill some of their prophets is evidenced, for instance, in the story of John the Baptist, as well as in the more general accusation uttered, according to the Gospel, by Jesus: "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee" (Matthew xxiii, 37). See also Matthew xxiii, 34-35, Luke xi, 51-both of which, refer to the murder of Zachariah -and I Thessalonians ii, 15. The implication of continuity in, or persistent repetition of, their wrongdoing transpires from the use of the auxiliary verb kdna in this context. 
62.VERILY, those who have attained to faith [in this divine writ], as well as those who follow the Jewish faith, and the Christians, and the Sabians (49) -all who believe in God and the Last Day and do righteous deeds-shall have their reward with their Sustainer; and no fear need they have, and neither shall they grieve. (50) 

49 - The Sabians seem to have been a monotheistic religious groupeintermediate between Judaism and Christianity. Their name (probably derived from the Aramaic verb tsebha`, "he immersed himself [in water]") would indicate that they were followers of John the Baptist-in which case they could be identified with the Mandaeans, a community which to this day is to be found in `Iraq. They are not to be confused with the so-called "Sabians of Harran", a gnostic sect which still existed in the early centuries of Islam, and which may have deliberately adopted the name of the true Sabians in order to obtain the advantages accorded by the Muslims to the followers of every monotheistic f aith. 

50 - The above passage - which recurs in the Qur'an several times - lays down a fundamental doctrine of Islam. With a breadth of vision unparalleled in any other religious faith, the idea of "salvation" is here made conditional upon three elements only: belief in God, belief in the Day of Judgment, and righteous action in life. The statement of this doctrine at this juncture - that is, in the midst of an appeal to the children of Israel - is warranted by the false Jewish belief that their descent from Abraham entitles them to be regarded as "God's chosen people".
63.AND LO! We accepted your solemn pledge, raising Mount Sinai high above you, (51) [and saying;] "Hold fast with [all your] strength unto what We have vouchsafed you, and bear in mind all that is therein, so that you might remain conscious of God!" 

51 - Lit., "and We raised the mountain (at-tar) above you": i.e., letting the lofty mountain bear witness, as it were, to their solemn pledge, spelled out in verse 83 below. Throughout my translation of the Qur'an, I am rendering the expression at-tar as "Mount Sinai", since it is invariably used in this sense alone. 
64.And you turned away after that-! And had it not been for God's favour upon you and His grace, you would surely have found yourselves among the lost;
65.for you are well aware of those from among you who profaned the Sabbath, whereupon We said_ unto them, "Be as apes despicable!" �
66.and set them up as a warning example for their time and for all times to come, as well as an admonition to all who are conscious of God. (52) 

52 - For the full story of the Sabbath-breakers, and the metaphorical allusion to "apes", see 7: 163-166. The expression ma bayna yadayhd, rendered here as "their time", is explained in sarah 3, note 3. 
67.AND LO! Moses said unto his people: "Behold, God bids you to sacrifice a cow." (53) They said: "Dost thou mock at us?" He answered: "I seek refuge with God against being so ignorant!" (54) 

53 - As is evident frpm verse 72, the story related in this and the subsequent passages almost certainly. refers toy the Mosaic law which ordains that in certain cases of unresolved murder a cow should be sacrificed, and the elders of the town or village nearest to the place of the murder should wash their hands over it and declare, "Our hands have not shed this blood, neither have our eyes seen it"--whereupon the community would be absolved of collective responsibility. For the details of this Old Testament ordinance, see Deuteronomy xxi, 1-9. 

54 - Lit., "lest I be one of the ignorant". The imputation of mockery was obviously due to the fact that Moses promulgated the above ordinance in very general terms, without specifying any details. 
68.Said they: "Pray on our behalf unto thy Sustainer that He make clear to us what she is to be like." [Moses] replied: "Behold, He says it is to be a cow neither old nor immature, but of art age in-between. Do, then, what you have been bidden!"
69.Said they: "Pray on our behalf unto thy Sustainer that He make clear to us what her colour should be." ' [Mopes] answered: "Behold; He says it is to be a yellow cow, bright of hue, pleasing to the beholder."
70.Said' they: "Pray on our behalf unto thy Sustainer that He make clear to us what she is to be like, for to us all cows resemble one another; and then, if God so wills, we shall truly be guided aright!"
71.[Moses] answered: "Behold, He says it is to be a cow not broken-in to plough the earth or to water the crops, free of fault, without markings of any other colour." Said they: "At last thou hast brought out the truth!"-and thereupon they sacrificed her, although they had almost left it undone. (55) 

55 - I.e., their obstinate desire to obtain closer and closer definitions of the simple commandment revealed to them through Moses had made it almost impossible for them to fulfil it. In his commentary on this passage; Tabari quotes the following remark of Ibn 'Abbas: "If [in the first instance] they had sacrificed any cow chosen by themselves, they would have fulfilled their duty; but they made it complicated for themselves, and so God made it complicated for them." A similar view has been'expressed, in the same context, by Zamakhshari. It would appear that the moral of this story points to an important-problem of all (and, therefore, also of Islamic) religious jurisprudence: namely, the inadvisability of trying to elicit additional details in respect of any religious law that had originally been given in general terms-for, the more numerous and multiform such details become, the more complicated and rigid becomes the law. This point has been acutely grasped by Rashid Rida', who says in his commentary on the above Qur'anic passage (see Mandr I, 345 f.): "Its lesson is that one should not pursue one's [legal] inquiries in such a way as to make laws more complicated .... This was how the early generations [of Muslims] visualized the problem. They did not make things complicated for themselves-and so, for them, the religious law (drn) was natural, simple and liberal in its straightforwardness. But those who came later added to it [certain other] injunctions which they had deduced by means of their own reasoning (iftihdd); and they multiplied those [additional] injunctions to such an extent that the religious law became a heavy burden on the community." For the sociological reason why the genuine ordinances of Islamic Law - that is, those which have been prima facie laid down as such in the Qur'an and the teachings of the Prophet-are almost always devoid of details, I would refer the reader to my book State and Government in Islam (pp. 11 ff. and passim). The importance of this problem, illustrated in the above story of the cow-and correctly grasped by the Prophet's Companions-explains why this sarah has been entitled "The Cow". (See also 5 : 101 and the corresponding notes 120-123.) 
72.For, O children of Israel, because you had slain a human being and then cast the blame for this [crime] upon one another -although God will bring to light what you would conceals(56) 

56 - See note 53 above. The use of the plural "you" implies the principle of collective, communal responsibility stipulated by Mosaic Law in cases of murder by a person or persons unknown. God's bringing the guilt to light obviously refers to the Day of Judgment. 
73.We said: "Apply this [principle] to some of those [cases of unresolved murder]: (57)in this way God saves lives from death and shows you His will, so that you might [learn to] use your reason."(58) 

57 - The phrase idribiihu bi-ba'dihd can be literally translated as "strike him [or "it"] with something of her [or "it"]" -and this possibility has given rise to the fanciful assertion by many commentators that the children of Israel were commanded to strike the corpse of the murdered man with some of the flesh of the sacrificed cow, whereupon he was miraculously restored to life and pointed out his murderer! Neither the Queen, nor any saying of the Prophet, nor even the Bible offers the slightest warrant for this highly imaginative explanation, which must, therefore, be rejected-quite apart from the fact that the pronoun hu in idribahu has a masculine gender, while the noun nafs (here translated as "human being") is feminine in gender: from which it follows that the imperative idribahu cannot possibly refer to nafs. On the other hand, the verb daraba (lit., "he struck") is very often used in a figurative or metonymic sense, as, for instance, in the expression daraba fi 'I-ard ("he journeyed on earth"), or daraba 'sh-shay' bi'sh-shay' ("he mixed one thing with another thing"), or daraba mathal ("he coined a similitude" or "propounded a parable" or "gave an illustration"), or `ald darb wdhid ("similarly applied" or "in the same manner"), or duribat `alayhim adh-dhillah ("humiliation was imposed on them" or "applied to them"), and so forth. Taking all this into account, I am of the opinion that the imperative idribuhu occurring in the above Qur'anic passage must be translated as "apply it" or "this" (referring, in this context, to the principle of communal responsibility). As for the feminine pronoun hd in ba'dihd ("some of it"), it must necessarily relate to the nearest preceding feminine noun-that is, to the nafs that has been murdered, or the act of murder itself about which (f tihd) the community disagreed. Thus, the phrase idribahu bi-ba'diha may be suitably rendered as "apply this [principle] to some of those [cases of unresolved murder]": for it is obvious that the principle of communal responsibility for murder by a person or persons unknown can be applied only to some and not to all such cases. 

58 - Lit., "God gives life to the dead and shows you His messages" (i.e., He shows His will by means of such messages or ordinances). The figurative expression "He gives life to the dead" denotes the saving of lives, and is analogous to that in 5:32. In this context it refers to the prevention of bloodshed and the killing of innocent persons (Manor 1, 351), be it through individual acts of revenge, or in result of an erroneous judicial process based on no more than vague suspicion and possibly misleading circumstantial evidence. 
74.And yet, after all this, your hearts hardened and became like rocks, or even harder: for, behold, there are rocks from which streams gush forth; and, behold, there are some from which, when they are cleft, water issues; and, behold, there are some that fall down for awe of God (59) And God is not unmindful of what you do! 

59 - For an explanation of this allusion, see 7: 143. The simile of "the rocks from which streams gush forth" or "from which water issues" serves to illustrate its opposite, namely, dryness and lack of life, and is thus an allusion to the spiritual barrenness with which the Qur'an charges the children of Israel. 
75.CAN YOU, then, hope that they will believe in what you are preaching (60) - seeing that a good many of them were wont to listen to the word of God and then, after having understood it, to pervert it knowingly? (61) 

60 - Here the Muslims are addressed. In the early period of Islam-and especially after their exodus to Medina, where many Jews were then living-the Muslims expected that the Jews, with their monotheistic beliefs, would be the first to rally to the message of the Qur'an: a hope that was disappointed because the Jews regarded their own religion as a kind of national heritage reserved to the children of Israel alone, and did not believe in the necessity -or possibility -of anew revelation. 

61 - Cf. Jeremiah xxiii, 26-"Ye have perverted the words of the living God".
76.For, when they meet those who have attained to faith. they say, "We believe [as you believe]" - but when they find themselves alone with one another, they say. "Do you inform them of what God has disclosed to you, so that they might use it in argument against you, quoting the words of your Sustainer? (62) Will you not. then, use your reason?" 

62 - Lit., "before [or "in the sight of"] your Sustainer". Most of the commentators '(e.g , Zamakhshari, Baghawl, Razi) agree in that the expression "your Sustainer" stands here for "thAt which your Sustainer has revealed", namely, the Biblical prophecy relating to the: coming. of a, , prophet "from among the brethren" of the children of Israel, and that, therefore, the above phrase implies an argument on the basis of the Jews' own scriptures. (See also note 3} above), 
77.Do they not know, then, that God is aware of all that they would conceal as well as of all that they bring into the open?
78.And there are among them unlettered people who have no real knowledge of the divine writ,(63) [following] only wishful beliefs and depending on nothing but conjecture. 

63 - In this case, the Old Testament. 
79.Woe, then, unto those who write down, with their own hands, [something which they claim to be] divine writ, and then say. "This is from God," in order to acquire a trifling gain thereby; (64) woe, then, unto them for what their hands have written, and woe unto them for all that they may have gained! 

64 - The reference here is to the scholars responsible for corrupting the' text of the Bible and thus misleading their ignorant followers. The "trifling gain" is their feeling of=pre-eminence as the alleged "chosen people".
80.And they say, "The fire will most certainly not touch us for more than a limited number of days." (65) Say [unto them]: "Have you received a promise from God - for God never breaks His promise - or do you attribute to God something which you cannot know?" 

65 - According to popular Jewish belief, even the sinners from among the children of Israel will suffer only very limited punishment in the life to come, and will be' quickly reprieved by virtue of their belonging to "the chosen people": a belief which the Quean rejects. 
81.Yea! Those who earn evil and by their sinfulness are engulfed - they are destined for the fire. therein to abide;
82.whereas those who attain to faith and do righteous deeds -they are destined for paradise, therein to abide.
83.AND LO! We accepted this solemn pledge from [you,] ' the children of Israel: (66) "You shall worship none but God; and you shall do good unto your parents and kinsfolk, and the orphans, and the poor; and you shall speak unto all people in a kindly way; and you shall be constant in prayer; and you shall spend in charity. (67) � And yet, save for a few of you, you turned away: for you are obstinate folk! (68) 

66 - In the preceding passages, the children of Israel have been reminded of the favours that were bestowed on them. Now, however, the Qur'an -reminds them of the fact that the way of righteousness has indeed been shown to them by means of explicit social and moral injunctions: and this reminder flows directly from the statement that the human condition in the life to come depends exclusively on the manner of one's life in this word, and not on one's descent. 

67 - See note 34 above. 

68 - The Old Testament contains many allusions to the waywardness and stubborn rebelliousness of the children of Israel - e.g., Exodus xxxii, 9, xxxii, 3, xxxiv, 9; Deuteronomy by, 6-8, 23-24, 27.